It starts with an adjustable hosel: The club’s loft, lie and face angle can change with each partial rotation of the shaft. Some hosels are designed to change the face angle, loft or lie independently. But most of the time a change in loft comes with a corresponding change in face angle. (Increasing the loft, for example, produces a more closed face.)
Each adjustment affects launch angle, spin rate and direction to maximize distance and mitigate the effect of swing flaws. Some adjustable drivers offer as much as 4 degrees of loft change and come in one head rather than a head for each loft.